From dos,087 earliest-seasons people just who undergone a standard test (pre-university) and you can complete surveys in the Fitness Solution Heart out of Okayama University in , 1,396 pupils volunteered to receive a good step three-seasons go after-up examination ahead of graduation inside (follow-right up price; 66.9%). Because of it investigation, i thought professionals which have a beneficial Body mass index out-of ? 25.0 kilogram m ?dos as the obese (16) . We omitted 82 members who had been overweight (Bmi ? twenty five kg yards ?dos ) at the the baseline health examination. Eventually, analysis in one,314 pupils (676 men and 638 lady; 65.3%) were assessed. The analysis was authorized by the Ethics Panel out-of Okayama College or university Graduate University from Medication, Dental and Drug Sciences (Zero. 306). Created concur is actually taken from all of the players.
Evaluation out-of heavy/being obese
From the general health test, brand new peak and the body pounds away from members had been counted from the university’s social health nurses utilising the Tanita surplus fat analyser (Design No. BF-220; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Body mass index was computed because pounds for the kilograms separated of the top during the yards squared (23) .
People reported rate regarding dinner prior to anyone else, according to certainly one of four qualitative categories: sluggish, normal, fast, and incredibly timely. The latest legitimacy and you can precision of one’s questionnaire is already affirmed and you will utilized for researching relationships ranging from self-reported restaurants rates and you can carrying excess fat (24) . I shared fast and extremely punctual solutions into the just one category off restaurants quickly and you may slow and you can normal responses on the an individual group of eating sluggish (8) .
To many other existence situations, solutions were given from the users when you look at the an excellent “yes/no” structure as follows: an unequal diet (we.e., abnormal mealtime), missing morning meal, restaurants up to complete, seem to snacking and you may/otherwise food later in the day, seem to consuming unhealthy fats, frequently food vegetables, appear to restaurants junk foods, frequently restaurants sweets, seem to taking (sugar-sweetened) soft drinks, regular exercise, and you can chronic drinking (sixteen, 20) . The brand new survey are conducted during the standard.
Paired t, unpaired t, Fisher’s exact, and chi-squared tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between baseline and re-examination, or normal weight and overweight groups. Using a logistic regression model, both odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Being overweight at the 3-year follow-up was used as a dependent variable. Gender, eating gratis siti web incontri herpes quickly, and frequently consuming fatty foods at baseline were added as independent variables on multivariate analysis according to the guidelines of a previous study (25) . All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (21.0J for Windows; SPSS Japan, Tokyo, Japan). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
There were no significant differences in prevalence of eating quickly and body composition at baseline between participants who were followed up and those who were not (data not shown). Table 1 shows the characteristics of participants. Overall, 207 male (30.2%) and 198 female (31.0%) participants reported eating quickly. Of the 38 participants (2.9%) who became overweight, none were obese (BMI ? 30 kg m ?2 ). There was a significant difference in body composition between baseline and re-examination data (P < 0.05).
- a mean ± practical departure.
- bP < 0.05, paired t test. Baseline vs. after 3 years.
- cP < 0.05, ? 2 test.
- dn (%).
In both male and female participants, a higher prevalence of those who ate quickly was observed in the overweight group compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.05). The prevalence of participants who ate quickly and frequently consumed fatty foods was significantly higher in the overweight group than in the normal weight group (P < 0.05).
- an (%).